The understanding of hydraulics principles is fundamental in the successful operation of water networks. These programmes aim to increase the knowledge and understanding of basic hydraulic principles and their impact on Clean Water Networks.

Understand Hydraulic Principles in relation to Clean Water Network Operations:

1. Flow & continuity – Understand the relationship between flow, velocity and pipe cross-sectional area. A key requirement in understanding the impact of demand, leakage and water quality issues.
2. Pressure & thrust – Determine the forces acting within pipelines and their impact on asset reliability and levels of service.
3. Energy conservation and head loss – Determine how topography, demand, mains size and mains condition impact on the overall performance of distribution systems.
4. Pumping – Understand how pumps are designed to operate at the most efficient head (or pressure increase) and delivery flow - their design duty point.
5. Reservoir balancing – Understand how to balance fluctuations in demand to allow a steady or planned output from the treatment works, pumping stations and trunk mains and to provide and control a suitable pressure in the distribution system.

The Correct Application of Hydraulic Principles to Improve Key Operational Service Performance Commitments:

1. Understand the impact of head loss on Low-Pressure levels of service – Head loss can generate poor supply complaints and can also lead to increased pumping costs.
2. Understand how to reduce the impact of Supply Interruptions – How to reduce risk whilst effecting rezones and overland bypasses. How to calculate tanker requirements.
3. Understanding the relationship between flow velocity risk of discolouration – Understand how discolouration materials accumulate and mobilise within pipelines is critical in reducing Water Quality Customer Contacts.
4. Understand how to mitigate the accumulation and mobilisation of discolouration materials – By the correct management of shear stresses in pipelines due to flow velocities.

Understand how to Calm Networks, Increase Asset Reliability and Reduce Leakage:

1. The relationship between pressure and leakage – Excess pressure weakens the assets over time, cause catastrophic failures and will increase leakage.
2. Identification and suppression of pressure transients - Which can cause significant damage to distribution assets, disturb discolouration materials in pipelines and cause unplanned interruptions to supply.
3. Valve management principles – Understanding how controlling valving operations can reduce pressure transients
4. Pump control and surge suppression – Understanding the causes of surge in pumping systems and how to reduce their impacts on asset life and burst frequencies within distribution systems.
5. Pressure management including flow modulation of pressure management valves – Effective pressure management will extend asset life, reduce leakage, reduce pressure-related consumption and reduce the frequency of bursts.